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Task base learning, by Mori Manjusri

        Task base- learning is a kind of method to teaching and learning base on task or assignment. In this word, teacher is show some of task for student after learning is finish. It is useful to find out how far students understand about materials that has been presented. ImageNunan (2006) define task base learning as “a piece of classroom works that concerning learners in understanding, directing, producing, and interacting technique in the target language. Hence, this method is focus on the usefulness of real language and student can do significant task in reach using target language.

      Task base learning was recognized firstly by N. Prabhu, an India people. He had stated that “student could learn language easier with non- linguistics problem, as when they were actual on linguistic question”. To apply this method to the classroom activities, teacher should know the components of task, characteristics of task, and also kind of task. It is useful to create process of teaching and learning with task is successfully.

       In basically, a good task should to have 6 components/ elements, such as goal and objective of task, input, activities, teacher role, learner role, and also setting of task. Furthermore, the good task is also need good characteristics, such as it is “should contains a primary focus on pragmatic meaning, a task has a clearly non- linguistic outcome, the participant is choice the linguistic resources that needed to complete to task, and as well as it has contain kind of gap” (Rod Ellis). Before teacher is offer task for students, teacher should to know the variety of task. At least there are 3 types of task, such as information gap activities, reasoning gap, and opinion gap.

  • Information Gap Activities

        In this process, an information gap activity is a process to transfer information or knowledge from one student to the other student, such as a pair work.

  • Reasoning Gap

         Reasoning gap is a process to bringing some information or knowledge that comes from inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or even a perception of relationship.

  • Opinion Gap

        Opinion gap is a process to identifying a personal preference, feeling, or attitude that given to a situation, such as the discussion about social issues in the society. Besides to apply types of task for student, teacher is also implements of task for student in the classroom activity, such as pre- task, task cycle, and language focus. The explanation about the components of task is presented into a table.


Types of Task

Process of Task



Pre- Task

  • Introduction to topic and task
  • Process to explore and develop task that may presented for student


Task Cycle

  • Task
  • Planning
  • Report
  • Teacher is given task for student, student set out task with 5W+ 1 H, and student to show their task to teacher.


Language Focus

  • Analysis
  • Practice
  • Students do evaluation and analyze about task, and teacher might perform form of specific language feature.


      The implementation of task base learning in the classroom activities can make many benefits for student and teacher, such as student can create meaningful communication, it has provide practical extra- linguistics’ skill building for student, it has provides different way about student understanding, it is useful to asses student understanding and comprehension about materials. However, many experts had given critics about the existence of this method, such as Loschky & Bley- Vroman and Jeremy Harmer. Loschky and Bley- Vroman state that “task can be designed to make certain form, namely task essential”. Jeremy Harmer (2001) is also stated that “task is promoted language acquisition thought the types of language and interaction they require”. He added that teacher might present language in the pre-task, but student are free to use grammar construct and vocabulary that student want. From these critics, the task base learning is appears some weakness, such as student might failed in the task and there is student differences about comprehensions the materials.


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Pety Nopiyanti

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