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The Communicative Approach, by Mori Manjusri


        The communicative approach is also known as communicative language teaching (CLT) is kind of a method to teach student base on interaction or communication each other. This method is focus on student’s interaction and communication with another Imagestudent. The history of communicative approach was begun in the Great Britain on 1960, when British want to apply linguistic to the language teaching. Besides that, this method had also developed by Noam Chomsky. He was demonstrate the standard structural theory of language were incompetent with occulting for the creativity and uniqueness of individual sentence.

      The characteristic of the communicative approach is there is interaction between student and others, such as other student and teacher.  However, many experts had mentioned the characteristics of communicative approach, such as present by Mhundum and Brumft. Mhundum (1998) state that “classroom communication is planned and presented in way that stimulate to real life situation, such as to give and follow an direction, to solve the problems, to use clue, conversation, dialogue, and debates”. As well as Mhundum, Brumft (1984) state that “communicative approach discourages over correction of language error by the teacher as it distracts from the messages”. However, there are differences between classroom that implements communicative activities and classroom that non- native activity, such as located in shape of content, the usefulness of language, the purpose of language, the intervention of teacher, and also control of material in the classroom. The explanations are presented into a table.

No

Communicative Criteria

Communicative Activities

Non-Communicative Activities

1

The Purpose of Language

A Communicative Purpose

No Communicative Purpose

2

Shape of Content

A Desire Communicative

No Communicative Desire

3

The Usefulness of language

Variety of Language

One Language Variation Item

4

The Intervention of Teacher

An Teacher Intervention

No Teacher Invention

5

Control of Material

Material Control

No Material control

 

       Base on table, there are strong differences between classroom that apply communicative activities and non- communicative activities in the teaching and learning. If communicative approach is applied to the classroom activities, it will make many advantages for student and teacher. The benefits are student is more centered in learning, it is useful to build team work, student can find out their strength and weakens in learning, it can increase communication’s skill, teacher can integrated the 4 element of English, that are speaking, writing, listening, and reading to the teaching’s syllabus.

      Therefore, this method is also having weakness in the teaching and learning, such as it is not necessary used for students who come from culture with traditional system and different learning style. Besides that, larger classes and the dissimilarities of student’s ability is middle false beginner to non- existent. A middle student will be lost student’s interest to learn, while student are not challenging to learning in the classroom. In contrast, student with lower capability will be de- motivating to participate in the classroom activities. Hence, student with lower capability is inactive in teaching and learning process.

       Because this method is focus on student communication, so teacher should to determine activities that more centered in the classroom. For instances are role play, interview, games, language exchange, survey, and pair work.

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