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Developmental cycles of World Englishes

       Kachru (1992) state that models of world Englishes are inner cycle, outer cycle, and the expanding cycle. Both of these models are having criteria and characteristics each other. This differences had made term that refer to same idea, such as endonormative and exonerative. Endonormative is variety of English that develop inside of country. The characteristic of Endonormative is there is elaboration between British English as foreign language with local language and cultures in a place, such as Malaysia. The local language that peoples using in this country is Malay. However, this local language had involved with British English. So, this elaboration is makes a new English, namely Malaysian English (MYe). In other hand, exonerative is model of English that come from outside, and also the usefulness of English is used outside in the English speaking country, such as in Indonesia and Vietnam.

      Moag (1992) describe life style for non- native Englishes into five classifications, that is:

  • Transportation

      Transportation it means English that arrive in a place that didn’t uses as language to communicate. In this word, English had brought by native speaker to a place.

  • Indigenization
  • The expansion in use
  • Decline in use

      In decline in use, English had elaborated with local languages and cultures. The results of this elaboration are made new English, such as Singapore English.


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