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Classifications or models of World Englishes


      English is one of the most popular languages in the world. There are many peoples who using and benefitted English in their daily life, such as to communicate to other, to convey the information, and other. According to data, the numbers of spoken English in the world are around 2.2 billion peoples. For many spoken, English is the most popular language in the world. Spoken of English can be distinguishes into 3 classifications, that is English as native language (ENL), English as second language (ESL), and English as foreign language (EFL). 

  • English as Native Language

       English as Native Language (ENL) is English that used by the peoples base on where English had born and come from. The characteristics of English as native language are people use English as primary language, and also spoken of English are dominate the usefulness of language in a country. Kachru (1992) state that the model of English as native speaker is inner cycle. Inner cycle is an agglomeration of englishes base on usefulness and numbers of spoken English. The countries and numbers of spoken English in the inner cycle are showed into a table.

Country

Numbers of Spoken English

United States

245.800.000

United Kingdom

 57.006.000

Canada

 25.880.000

Australia

 16.475.000

New Zealand

   3.336.000

Source: Kachru Inner cycle’s model

       From this data, United State had occupied the higher native speaker in the inner cycle’s model with 245.8 millions spoken. In other hand, the lower native speaker in the inner cycle’s model is occupied by New Zealand with 3.3 million spoken. 

  • English as Second Language (ESL)

        English as second language is language that people using as substitute language in the communication. For many reason, English is very important for peoples to speak and learns, such as to find job, to study in the overseas, and also to work in the foreign company. English as second language is also having same functions and position in the society, such as most of peoples is using English as formal language and official language. However, most of peoples are also using local language for daily activities, such as doing conversation in the traditional market, to talks with parent, and other. Hence, the existence of English as second language in a country is very important, but it is not indicate that this language as main language in the country. The classification of English as second language is suitable with Kachru’s model in world Englishes, which the Outer Cycle. Outer cycle is the agglomeration of English base on usefulness of English in the world, such as it can be find in English as second language. Countries those categories as outer cycle are:  

Country

Numbers of Spoken English

India

810.806.000

Pakistan

109.434.000

Bangladesh

107.756.000

Philippines

 58.434.000

Tanzania

 23.996.000

Kenya

 22.919.000

Malaysia

 16.965.000

Sri Lanka

 16.606.000

Ghana

  13.750.000

Zambia

   7.384.000

Singapore

   2.641.000

 

Source: Kachru’s the Outer cycle model

      Base on this table, India is located the higher spoken English in the outer cycle with 810.8 million peoples. The reason why India have many spoken English are caused at least 2 reasons, first India is having a lot of societies, and second is the government in India had made an regulation for their societies to learns English. In other hand, Singapore is a country that the lower English spoken in the outer cycle. The number of English spoken in Singapore is around 2.6 million spoken. Singapore is a small country than other, and also this country is having a little of societies. This is probably reason why English spoken in Singapore is lower than other.

  • English as Foreign Language

English as foreign language (ESL) is English that spoken not normally in the daily activities. In this word, the use of English for spoken is not important enough and restricted use for formal place, such as at school and the higher education. In the school, students are having less opportunity and they are also having little motivation to express and benefit English. The obstacle to apply English as foreign language for a country is people prefer to use local language than English to communicate each other. However, the strength that may find in English as foreign language is people felt proud because their able to use English, and also they can enrich their knowledge. The classification of English as foreign language is suitable with Kachru’s model in world Englishes, which is the expanding cycle. The expanding cycle is a cycle that describes the use of English as foreign language. The countries that include in the expanding cycle base on Kachru’s model are:

Country

Numbers of Spoken English

China

1.088.200.000

ESSR

   285.796.000

Indonesia

   175.904.000

Japan

   122.620.000

Egypt

    50.273.000

Korea

    42.593.000

Taiwan

    19.813.000

Nepal

    18.004.000

Zimbabwe

     8.878.000

Israel

     4.552.000

Source: Kachru’s the Expanding Cycle Model

        Base on Kachru’s model, the first stage in the expanding cycle is occupied by China with 1.08 billion peoples. In other hand, the lower English spoken in expanding cycle is occupied by Israel with 4.5 million spoken.

        The classification of world Englishes is may make many advantages, such as it is useful to make English become Englishes. With this category, spoken of English can be identify and describe around the world, such as English as native language (ENL), English as second language (ESL), or even English as foreign language (EFL).

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