In make test for student, teacher should to determine stage firstly. The stages are formulated:
a) Determine the purpose of test
Determine the purpose of test is very important to do for teacher in gives test for their student. It is useful to find out the reason why a teacher gives test, such as to find out how far student can understand about materials that teacher has been presented, or to find out the student’s knowledge, or even to find out student strength and weakness in learning
b) Developing test specifications
c) Designing test
Design test is a procedure to establish test for student. Teacher can uses and give some kind of test for their students, such as teacher want to know how far student understanding about materials that has been presented, so teacher can use diagnostic test. If teacher want to determine suitable level for his student, so teacher can use placement test.
d) Piloting test
Piloting test is a method to try the validity and reliability of test item. Teacher can construct test base on their syllabus or course objectives. In this process, teacher makes some question base on his syllabus in teaching. For example, Mr. Eko is an English teacher in SMP Budi Sentosa. In this semester, his syllabus is teaches about grammar. So, Mr. Eko can make test about grammar. See for examples about grammar test.
e) Item analysis
Item analysis is a process to find out the effectiveness of test item, such as level of test item (difficulty or easier test). The aims of item analysis are to assess the quality of the test and to identify the effective of test for student. In determine student in the item analysis, teacher can categories students into 3 mainly groups, that is upper group, middle group, and lower group. Upper group can define as student who got higher score in the test. In other hand, student in the lower group is student who got lower score in the test. There are two kinds of item analysis, that is item facility and item discrimination.
· Item Facility
Item facility is an item that shows the percentage of student who answers the correct question. The function of item facility to differentiate the quality of questions, such as the question is too harder or to easier to student. Pattern to looking for item facility is:
IF = N correct
IF : Refer for item facility
N Correct : The number of student who answer the correct question
N Total : The number of student who taking a test
· Item Discrimination
Item discrimination is an item to distinguish the level of student, such as they are better or weaker’ student. There are two components of item discrimination, that is IF Upper and IF lower. IF Upper is students who got the higher score and IF lower is students who got the lowest score in the test. To search IF Upper and IF lowest, teacher should to dividing all score in the item analysis with number of student in the IF Upper or IF Lower. Item discrimination pattern are:
ID = IF Upper –IF lower
ID : Refer to Item Discrimination
IF Upper : Student who got the higher scores in the group
IF Lower : Student who got the lower scores in the group
f) Fine- tuning test
After finishes doing item test, the next step that teacher should to do is fine- tuning test. Fine tuning test is a process to amelioration of the test item, such as test item should to reject, to retain, or to improve from item analysis. See the fine- tuning test pattern:
00,00 – 18, 50 : Test item should to reject because it is too difficult for student.
18, 50 – 37, 00 : Test item should to improve because it is too easier for student.
37,00 – 75, 00 : Test item is standard for student and should to retain in the test item.
75,00 – 87, 50 : Test item should to improve because it is too easier for student.
87, 50 – 100 : Test item should to reject because it is too difficult for student.
g) Administrating test
After teacher is done with fine tuning test, the next stage that teacher should to do is administrating test. Administrating test is a process to gives correct item test to student again. The regulation of administrating test is teacher should to ascertain the item test is correct question. The example of administrating test with correct item test is:
h) Marking test
After the correct test has been given to student, the next step that teacher should to do is marking test. Marking test is a process to mark student answer in the item test. Teacher should to determine the correct or answer question. For example:
i) Analysis test result
Analysis test result is a process to analysis the effectiveness of test for student. Teacher can evaluate the result of test. If many students were got good scores after test, it means the teacher is success in a teaching. Whereas, if many students were got worst scores after the test, it means the teacher is failure in the teaching their student. To evaluate, teacher can looking for in the student’s learning method, the quality of the test, the teacher method in teaching, syllabus of learning, and other.