A.Definition of strategy
Strategy is a characteristic onset for particular problem and it is more variation in each individual. Strategy can also define as procedures that facilitate a learner task, (Chamot, 2005)
B. Kind of strategy
1. Learning strategy
2. Communication Strategy
3. Avoidance Strategy
4. Compensatory Strategy
1). Learning strategy
Learning strategy is a strategy that relate to input, processing, stores, and it is taking massage from other. Kinds of learning strategy are:
Metacognitive strategy is a strategy that involves learning planning, pemantauan strategy as well as understanding someone and also learning evaluation after activity finished. Kinds of metacognitive strategy are:
- The beginning planning is a common introduction observation, but it is more comprehensive about organizing concept/ principle in learning activity in the future.
- Attention focus
- Selective attention is to decide in the beginning to give attention for aspect in language input or situational detail that will given instruction in remember input.
- Self management
- Functional planning is to planning and train of linguistic component that needed to carry out language duty in the future.
- Delay production,
- Self evaluation, to investigate the result of language learning with internal measurement to completeness and accuration.
Cognitive strategy is a strategy that more limited to learner specific assignment and it is involve the functional directly to learning materials. The kinds of cognitive strategy are:
- Repetition is to imitate a language model, included real practice and direct practice.
- Frequent trace is to use a reference material language.
- Penerjemahan is to use first language as basic to self understanding or to produce second language.
- Deduction is to consciously applying role to produce and understand the second language.
- Recombination is to constructing a meaningful sentence or large language sequence by combining know element in a new way.
- Imagery is relating new information to visual concept in memory via familiar, easily retrievable visualizations, phrase, or location.
- Auditory representation is retention of the sound or a similar sound for a word, phrase, or longer language sequence.
- Keyword is remembering a new word in second language by (1) identifying a familiar word in the first language that resembles the new word, and (2) generating easily recalled image of some relating between the new word and familiar word.
- Contextualization is placing a word or phrase in meaningful language sequence.
- Elaboration is relating new information to other concepts in memory.
- Transfer is using previously acquired linguistic and conceptual knowledge to facilitate a language learning task.
- Inference is using available information to guess the meaning of new items, predicts outcomes, or fill in missing information.
Socioaffective strategy is a strategy that relate to social mediation activity and it is also relate with interaction with other people. Kinds of socioaffective strategy are:
- Cooperation is working with one or more peers to obtain feedback, pool information, or model a new activity.
- Question for clarification is asking to teacher or other native speaker for repetition, paraphrasing, explanation, and give an examples.
2). Communication Strategy
Communication Strategy is potentially conscious plans that to an individual present itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal (Fear and Kasper, 1983).
3). Avoidance Strategy
Avoidance strategy is a common communication strategy that can be broken down into several subcategories. The kind of avoidance strategy:
- syntactic avoidance or lexical in the semantic category
Learner : I lost my road
Native speaker : You lost your road?
Learner : Uh … I lost. I got lost.
Base on example, the learner avoid the lexical item road entirely, not able to come up with word way at the point.
- phonology avoidance
- topic avoidance
Topic avoidance is avoidance that all topic conversations might be avoided entirely. For example, changing the subject, pretending do not understand, simply not responding at all, noticeable abandoning a message when a thought becomes too difficult to express.
4). Compensatory Strategy
Kinds of Compensatory strategy are:
- fabricated patterns,
- Code switching
Code switching is the use of a first or third language within a stream of speech in the second language.
- A direct appeal for help
Learner may if stuck for particular word or phrases directly as to native speaker or the teacher for the form.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Prinsip Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran Bahasa. Kedubes Amerika Serikat di Jakarta: Pearson Education.