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MORPHOLOGY


INTRODUCTION

             The word is the part that can never be missing from humans. Everyone would say the word either in oral or written form. Every spoken word has a meaning and each word of the addition of the meaning of those words will be changed anyway.

Image    To study the changes in the form of a Word, we need to use Linguistics called morphology. Morphology is study and learning about morphemes and how to combine morpheme to be a word. In morphology, we are going to learn about the details of the structure a word, the structure of words, affixes, and analysis said.

    While understanding of the smallest is part of a morpheme words and meanings of their own. Morpheme divided into two parts which is free morpheme and bound morpheme. Free morpheme is independent or can stand alone as a Word.

     While the bound morpheme cannot stand alone as a Word. Bound morpheme must always be combined with another morpheme to be able to be a Word. Addition of a morpheme in a Word can change the meaning of the word.

   In the study of morphology, the coverage is in morphology is the difference between lexical items and word, morpheme and morphology, monomorpheme and polymorphenic, allomorph, root: base: stem of a Word, the process of inflection, all of the coverage that exists in the derivation, blending and compounding.

     To understand how the shape changes in a Word, we should understand about the process of change from the word. In this paper we discuss about the parts and various forms of a Word changes and its meaningness. The scope of discussion of morphology is quite extensive. We should study it carefully in order to understand the definition of a word.

 

 

CHAPTER 2

CONTENT OF MORHOLOGY

      In this bab, we will talk about the scope of morphology, such as about lexical item and words, morpheme and morphology, monomorpheme and polymorpheme, alomorpheme, root,base, and steam, inflextion, and derivation.

1.Lexical Item vs Words

A. Lexical Item

   Lexical item is a series of word that perform the basic element in a language, and it can understand to suggest single meaning. Lexical items are seems the natural units translating among languages or in education a new language.

B. Word

    The short definition of word is a meaningful building block of language. Another definition word is:

  • A word has a meaning that is unpredictable and so must be listed in dictionaries.
  •  Words have building-block out formed the sentences and phrase.

The content and functions of word are:

  • The content of word is to carrying the meaning of sentence, such as about part of speech (verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs).
  • The functions of words as precede nouns, which it is very difficult for learners to learn English.

At least four classifying in a word, like as:

  • Semantic knowledge is what people used when they are classify a noun as a person (Michael, John, Evra, etc), place (Yogyakarta, Sambas, Pontianak, Singkawang, etc), or thing (pen, hand phone, motorcycle, etc).
  • All language has word like as nouns and verbs who making into general part of sentence structure.
  • Adverb provides the extra information about actions. For examples are quick become quickly, hard become hardly, late become lately, slow become slowly, and any more.
  • Adjectives serve to describe people, places, and thing.

2. Morpheme vs Morphology

  A. Morpheme

    Morpheme is the smallest unit of a word. For example unhappiness. Unhappiness has three main points, like as –Un, happy, and –ness. -Un is a prefix or morphome and it is can’t exist without being attached to a free morpheme. Furthermore happy is a free morpheme and it is can exist independently and –ness is a suffix or bound morpheme and it can’t also exist without attachement to a free morpheme.

   Actually, there are two part of morpheme like as free morpheme and bound morpheme. Free morpheme is a part of morpheme that can separately as words such as hand phone, city, mirror, cat, etc and it can also appear with other lexemes, such as town square, school yard, etc. Furthermore is bound morpheme that it can only appear as parts of words, and it always in a conjunction with a root and sometimes with other bound morphemes. For example is un-appear, which –un is a suffix and appear is one of word. In English, morpheme has three parts, like as are affixes, particularly prefixes and suffixes. To allow the meanings of some complex words to be predictable, morphemes must:

  • Can be identifiable from one word to another.
  • Contribute in some way to the meaning of the whole word.

   B. Morphology.

   Morphology is study of word and use in a structure of sentence. In other reference, the definition of morphology is study of words as well as morpheme to create words. For example are:

Re- move                                 Nation- alize

Re- animate                            Person- alize

Re- boot                                  Industry- alize

3. Monomorpheme vs Polymorpheme

    The difference between Monomorpheme and polymorpheme is located in the quantities of morpheme. In the monomorpheme, it only has one morpheme and a word in the lexical item. Whereas in the Polymorpheme consisting more than one morpheme and recognising the existence of lexical items.

4. Alomorpheme

    Allomorphs are the kind of a morpheme that variance in pronunciation, but they are semantically identical. For example plural marker -(e)s of regular nouns can be pronounced /-z/, /-s/, or /-ɨz/, depending on the final sound of the noun’s singular form

5. Root, Base, and Steam

    Root is a lexical content morpheme that it can be analysis into smaller parts. Furthermore base is an affixes that located in front of or behind the root. The last is Steam that it collaboration a root with affix morpheme. Other affixes can be added to form a more complex steam.

6. Inflextion

   Inflection is a variation of a word to express different grammatical categories such as about, grammatical mood, tenses, grammatical voice, and case, person, number, gender.

The purpose of inflection is to expresses one or more grammatical categories with an explicitly stated prefix, suffix, or infix, or another internal modification such as a vowel change.

7. Derivation

     Derivation is a process of forming a new word in existing word and it is contrast to the process of inflection, which use other kind of affix in order to form grammatical variants of the same word. For example:

Determine       Become           Determination

Happy              become           happiness

Clean               become           Unclean

Hope                become           hopefully

A. Affication

    Affication can be inflectional or derivitional. Inflectional affication is one of part affrication to add the word without changing the part of speech and it is generally don’t change meaning of the base word. Some inflectional affixes are plural with add –s and –es or can possesive with add –s, -ing, -ed, and –en. For example: Star becomes stars, or end becoming ending. Whereas Derivational affixes is to do change the meaning of the word. For example: teach becomes teacher, or tie becomes untie.

B. Prefication

The patern of prefication are:

  • The 1st prefix is auto. Auto is a prefix meaning oneself or by it self. For example: Automobile.
  • The 2nd prefix is co. Co is a prefix meaning with or together. For example: Co-worker.
  • The 3rd prefix is fore. Fore is a prefix before or in front of. For example: A perso in the front of a car.
  • The 4th prefix is multy. Multy is a prefix meaning many or much. For example : muliplication.
  • The 5th prefix is sub. Sub is a prefix meaning under. For example: Subdoing someones anger.
  • The 6th prefix is up. Up is a prefix meaning above.
  • The 7th prefix is con/com. Con/ com is prefix like co, with or together. For example: Commongble (to mix or blend two things together).
  • The 8th prefix, is col/ cor. Col/ cor also the same as com/ con and co with together. For example: Collaborate (meaning to work together).

   Another the pattren of prefication are –un, -dis, -in, -ir, -im, non-, and –miss. For example:

-Un      : unclean, uneasy, unfair, untrue, unusual, unhappy, unforgettable, etc.

-Dis      : disconected, disadventages, disbelieve, disorder, disallow, disappear, disagree, etc.

-In        : inactive, incorrect, indirect, in complete, inconsistent, incapable, independent, etc.

-Ir        : irrational, irreguler, irrelevent, irreligious, irremoble, irressolute, irresponsible, etc.

-Im       : imbalance, immature, immobile, immorale, impassive, impatient, imperfect, etc.

Non-    : non- conductor, non- stop, non- exixtent, non- member, non- smoker, etc.

-Mis     : misconduct, mismanage, misshape, misunderstand, misguieded, misinformation, etc.

C. Suffication

   A derivational suffix usually applies to words of one syntactic category and changes them into words of another syntactic category. For example, the English derivational suffix-ly changes adjectives into adverbs. For example are hard become hardly, fast become fastly,  etc. The example of English derivational patterns and their suffixes:

1. Make verb from noun

  A. With add suffixes ize and ate. For example:

Terror              become           to terrorize

Rational           become           to rationalize

Economy         become           to economize

Different         become           to differentiaze

  B. With add prefix –en, in, -a. For example:

Danger                        become           to endanger

List                   become           to enlist

Grain               become           ingrain

Sure                 become           assure

  2. Make noun from verb

A. With added suffixes –tion, -sion, -action. For example:

To add             become           addition

To connect      become           connection

To abbreviate  become           abbreviation

To compile      become           compilation

B. With added suffixes –al, -se, -ment, -iture, -ance. For example:

To refuse         become           refusal

To govern        become           government

To confide       become           confidence

To expend       become           expense

C. With added suffixes –er, -or, -ant, and –ent who indicate to people. For example:

To teach          become           teacher

To operate      become           operator

To supply         become           supplicant

To expedite     become           expedient

For another patern of suffication are:

  • The 1st suffixes pattern is ize/ yze. Ize/ yze is a suffix meaning to cause to be. For example: Randomize.
  • The 2nd suffixes pattern is ous. Ous is a suffix meaning full of. For example: Furious.
  • The 3rd suffix is some. Some is a suffix used to make an adjective as a characteristic and sometimes used as a group. For example: Threesome.
  • The 4th suffixes are age. Age is a word ending used to form nouns that show condition, function, relation, or action. For example: Breakage.
  • The 5th suffix is Al. Al is a word ending used to form nouns from verb and it indicated the action of the verbs. For example: Historical.

D. Unification

REPERENCES

  1. ENSIKLOPEDIA
  2. Mas’ud Fuad, essensial of English grammar, BPFE Yogya, 1992
  3. youtube

 

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